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– Logo Design
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Prehistoric man did not have the Internet, but it appears that he needed a way to count and make calculations. The limitations of the human body’s ten fingers and ten toes apparently caused early man to construct a tool to help with those calculations. Scientists now know that humankind invented an early form of computers. Their clue was a bone carved with prime numbers found in 8,500 BC.
The abacus was the next leap forward in computing between 1000 BC and 500 BD. This apparatus used a series of moveable beads or rocks. The positions changed to enter a number and again to perform mathematical operations. Leonardo DaVinci was credited with the invention of the world’s first mechanical calculator in 1500. In 1642, Blaise Pascal’s adding machine upstaged DaVinci’s marvel and moved computing forward again.
In 19th century England, Charles Babbage, a mathematician, proposed the construction of a machine that he called the Babbage Difference Engine. It would not only calculate numbers, it would also be capable of printing mathematical tables. The Computer History Museum in Mountain View, CA (near San Diego) built a working replica from the original drawings. Visitors can see in the device in operation there. Unable to construct the actual device, he earned quite a few detractors among England’s literate citizens. However, Babbage made a place for himself in history as the father of computing. Not satisfied with the machines limitations, he drafted plans for the Babbage Analytical Engine. He intended for this computing device to use punch cards as the control mechanism for calculations. This feature would make it possible for his computer to use previously performed calculations in new ones.
Babbage’s idea caught the attention of Ada Byron Lovelace who had an undying passion for math. She also saw possibilities that the Analytical Machine could produce graphics and music. She helped Babbage move his project from idea to reality by documenting how the device would calculate Bernoulli numbers. She later received recognition for writing the world’s first computer program. The United States Department of Defense named a computer language in her honor in 1979.
The computers that followed built on each previous success and improved it. In 1943, the first programmable computer Turing COLOSSUSappeared. It was pressed into service to decipher World War II coded messages from Germany. ENIAC, the brain, was the first electronic computer, in 1946. In 1951, the U.S. Census Bureau became the first government agency to buy a computer, UNIVAC .
- 8,500 BC Bone carved with prime numbers found
- 1000 BC to 500 BC Abacus invented
- 1642 Blaise Pascal’s invented adding machine, France
- 1822 Charles Babbage drafted Babbage Difference Engine, England
- 1835 Babbage Analytical Engine proposed, England
- 1843 Ada Byron Lovelace computer program to calculate Bernoulli numbers, England
- 1943 Turing COLOSSUS the first programmable computer, England
- 1946 ENIAC first electronic computer, U.S.A.
- 1951 UNIVAC first computer used by U.S. government, U.S.A.
- 1969 ARPANET Department of Defense lays groundwork for Internet, U.S.A.
- 1968 Gordon Moore and Robert Noyce found in Intel, U.S.A.
- 1977 Apple computers for consumers sold, U.S.A.
- 1981 IBM personal computers sold, U.S.A.
- 1991 World Wide Web consumer Internet access, CERN, Tim Berners-Lee Switzerland/France
- 2000 Y 2K Bug programming errors discovered
- Current Technologies include word processing, games, email, maps, and streaming
Insomnia – is the perception or complaint of inadequate or poor-quality sleep because of difficulty falling asleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, or waking too early in the morning. These result in the feeling that sleep is not restorative and often are associated with impaired function during the day.
Description of Insomnia
Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in the United States. About one-third of the adult population has experienced it at some time and approximately 10% have a persistent problem.
Insomnia can be classified in terms of its duration: transient, short-term, and chronic. Transient and short-term insomnia are caused by similar factors, but short-term insomnia usually requires a greater disturbance.
Transient insomnia can be described as lasting from one night to a few weeks and is usually caused by events that alter your normal sleep pattern, such as traveling or sleeping in an unusual environment (e.g., a hotel).
Short-term insomnia lasts about two to three weeks and is usually attributed to emotional factors such as worry or stress.
Chronic insomnia occurs most nights and lasts a month or more.
Causes and Risk Factors of Insomnia
Typically, transient or short-term insomnia are caused by similar factors, but the degree of disturbance is usually greater to experience short-term insomnia. These include:
- Stress-related factors � significant personal events, such as losing a job, marital problems, stress and generaly worrying.
- Uncomfortable sleeping environment (too much light or noise, uncomfortable temperature).
- Unusual sleeping environment (e.g., a hotel room).
- Changes in the daily rhythm, such as a change in work shift or jet lag.
- Acute medical illness or their treatments.
Chronic insomnia may be caused by one of the following:
- Chronic medical illnesses – Certain medical illness can interfere with sleep, especially disorders of the heart (congestive heart failure) and lungs (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). Other important physical causes include heartburn, prostatism, menopause, diabetes, arthritis, hyperthyroidism and hypoglycemia.
- Sleep disordered breathing – Disorders of sleep that cause one to stop breathing while asleep may fragment sleep and cause frequent awakenings during the night. This can be seen rarely with obstructive sleep apnea, but is much more common with central sleep apnea.
- Restless leg syndrome (RLS) � RLS is an unpleasant tickling, burning, pricking or aching sensations in the legs that are generally only relieved with movement and tend to occur while relaxing in the evening hours. A similar and often overlapping disorder is periodic limb movement of sleep, which are the recurrent movements of the legs during sleep that may cause arousals from sleep.
- Psychophysiologic (“learned”) insomnia – Many people go to bed worrying about insomnia because of previous episodes. This creates an anxiety about going to sleep, which usually leads to greater difficulty sleeping.
- Biological factors – As we age, sleep becomes lighter and more fragmented. Older people often struggle with frequent nighttime awakenings and the inability to sleep past the very early morning. Also, during our life spans, the internal biological “clock” that regulates sleep creeps slightly forward, compelling most older people to go to sleep earlier and to wake earlier.
- Lifestyle factors – Excessive caffeine consumption, alcohol and drug abuse, smoking, and poor sleeping habits are often overlooked as cause of chronically disturbed sleep.
Diagnosis of Insomnia
Surprisingly, a sleep study is not routinely recommended for those complaining of insomnia. The reason is that when a sleep study is performed in someone suffering from insomnia, it does not generally give any new information; it simply confirms that the patient is having trouble sleeping. The best way to find the cause for insomnia is by careful history taking. Assessment of recent onset insomnia should focus on acute personal and medical problems. In those reporting long-term sleep disturbances, evaluation should address the history as well as physical and mental status. Referral to a sleep laboratory might be appropriate if a sleep-related breathing disorder is suspected, insomnia has been present for more than six months and medical, psychiatric, and neurological causes have been excluded, or if insomnia has not responded to medical or behavioral treatment. Additionally, a sleep diary should be maintained. This diary would include bedtimes, estimates of the time needed to fall asleep, number of night awakenings, and total amount of time asleep. This helps in correct diagnosis as well as monitoring the treatment.
Treatment of Insomnia
When people think of treatment for insomnia they tend to think of sleeping pills, but there are actually non-medical therapy that have not only been shown to be effective in improving insomnia, but are possibly even better in the long term than �sleeping pills�. Insomnia therapy can be divided into two areas: treatment with and without medication.
Treatment with Medication
- Alcohol. Commonly self-prescribed as a sleep aid, alcohol is of limited benefit. A very small amount of alcohol can be relaxing and produce sleepiness early in the evening, but later in the evening there may be a �rebound effect� of difficulty sleeping. In addition, chronic alcohol use can produce tolerance and dependence and cause many other medical problems.
- Antihistamines. Usually sold as remedies for colds, over-the-counter antihistamines (e.g., diphenhydramine) can produce sedation and are often used as sleeping pills. These agents can be effective for short-term use, but they have not been shown to be consistently effective. Since they are long acting medications, grogginess can persist into the daytime.
- Benzodiazepines. These drugs, relatives of diazepam (Valium), improve sleep by decreasing the amount of time needed to fall asleep and the number of awakenings during sleep. Their use has declined considerably with the introduction of non-benzodiazepine drugs (see below). The side effects of using these drugs are poor coordination, reduced reaction time, and impaired memory. These “hangover effects” occur when the blood level is at its peak and will vary depending on how long the drug remains in the body. These drugs may also worsen sleep apnea.
- Non-benzodiazepines – These drugs have been introduced over the past 10-12 years and have become the primary treatment for short-term insomnia. They work in the same area of the brain as the BZDs, but tend to be more specific for inducing sleep. They also do not cause significant hangover effects and do not seem to worsen sleep apnea. Examples of this class of drugs are Ambien, Sonata, and Lunesta.
- Ramelteon (Rozerem) – A newly approved medication that acts at the melatonin receptor to help induce sleep (see below).
- Melatonin – This herbal agent seems to be effective in helping transient and short-term insomnia. However, as an herbal supplement which is not regulated by the Food and Drug Administartion, there is a great discrepancy in the quality of the products and no firm recommendations and can be given for its use.
- Antidepressants – These agents are often prescribed as sleep aids in those with co-existing psychiatric problems. The most commonly used sedating antidepressant is trazodone.
- Herbal medications such as valerian, chamomile, and kava-kava, are often used to help sleep, but long-term effectiveness and safety data are not available.
Treatment without Medication
The non-medication treatment methods used to help insomnia are often focused at helping the patient �relearn� how to sleep. Some of these techniques are common-sense habits that go a long way in helping people feel sleepy at night. These include:
- Develop a regular sleeping schedule. Avoid daytime naps and stimulating activities just before bedtime.
- Avoid stimulating drugs, such as caffeine and nicotine, particularly before going to bed.
- Exercise during the day (but not in the late evening).
- Avoid alcohol- it is a leading cause of poor sleep.
- Minimize light and noise when trying to sleep..
- Maintain a comfortable bedroom temperature.
- Avoid heavy meals before bedtime. If hungry, eat a light carbohydrate snack.
- Take medications that may be stimulating, or those that may cause you to wake up to urinate long before bedtime.
- Increase exposure to sunlight in the morning, and avoid it later in the afternoon (5-6 PM).
Additionally, there are some behavioral techniques, usually conducted under the guidance of a psychologist, that can be very helpful in treating insomnia. The effectiveness of these procedures tends to be more durable in helping patients with insomnia than treatment with medication alone. These include relaxation therapy, sleep restriction, stimulus control, and cognitive therapy.
Relaxation therapy consists of techniques that help reduce or eliminate anxiety and body tension.
Sleep restriction is a technique that starts with a person only being allowed to get a few hours sleep a night; over time the hours of sleep are increased until a more normal night’s sleep is achieved. This technique is designed to limit the hours that one spends in bed unable to sleep and helps re-associate the bedroom with sleeping, instead of the frustration of insomnia.
Stimulus control therapy attempts teach the patient to use the bedroom is only for activities related to sleep. For most people this means not using their beds for any activities other than sleep and sex.
The goal of cognitive therapy is provide reassurance to patients that sleeping less than 8 hours a night is not necessarily unhealthy and does not always lead to major consequences on the following day.
Questions To Ask Your Doctor About Insomnia
What kind of insomnia is it?
What will the body do if it is not getting enough sleep?
What over-the-counter sleeping aids do you recommend?
How long can a person safely take sleeping pills?
Will you be prescribing any medication?
What are the side effects?
What other measures can be done to help me sleep better?
Intellectual property (IP) is a term referring to a number of distinct types of creations of the mind for which a set of exclusive rights are recognized—and the corresponding fields of law. Under intellectual property law, owners are granted certain exclusive rights to a variety of intangible assets, such as musical, literary, and artistic works; discoveries and inventions; and words, phrases, symbols, and designs. Common types of intellectual property include copyrights, trademarks, patents, industrial design rights and trade secrets in some jurisdictions. Although many of the legal principles governing intellectual property have evolved over centuries, it was not until the 19th century that the term intellectual property began to be used, and not until the late 20th century that it became commonplace in the United States. The British Statute of Anne 1710 and the Statute of Monopolies 1623 are now seen as the origins of copyright and patent law respectively. Contents [hide] 1 History 2 Objectives 2.1 Financial incentive 2.2 Economic growth 3 Criticism 3.1 The term itself 3.2 Limitation 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External links History This article or section may contain previously unpublished synthesis of published material that conveys ideas not attributable to the original sources. See the talk page for details. (November 2009) Main articles: History of patent law and History of copyright law Modern usage of the term intellectual property goes back at least as far as 1867 with the founding of the North German Confederation whose constitution granted legislative power over the protection of intellectual property (Schutz des geistigen Eigentums) to the confederation. When the administrative secretariats established by the Paris Convention (1883) and the Berne Convention (1886) merged in 1893, they located in Berne, and also adopted the term intellectual property in their new combined title, the United International Bureaux for the Protection of Intellectual Property. The organisation subsequently relocated to Geneva in 1960, and was succeeded in 1967 with the establishment of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) by treaty as an agency of the United Nations. According to Lemley, it was only at this point that the term really began to be used in the United States (which had not been a party to the Berne Convention), and it did not enter popular usage until passage of the Bayh-Dole Act in 1980. “The history of patents does not begin with inventions, but rather with royal grants by Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603) for monopoly privileges… Approximately 200 years after the end of Elizabeth’s reign, however, a patent represents a legal [right] obtained by an inventor providing for exclusive control over the production and sale of his mechanical or scientific invention… [demonstrating] the evolution of patents from royal prerogative to common-law doctrine.” In an 1818 collection of his writings, the French liberal theorist, Benjamin Constant, argued against the recently introduced idea of “property which has been called intellectual.” The term intellectual property can be found used in an October 1845 Massachusetts Circuit Court ruling in the patent case Davoll et al. v. Brown., in which Justice Charles L. Woodbury wrote that “only in this way can we protect intellectual property, the labors of the mind, productions and interests are as much a man’s own…as the wheat he cultivates, or the flocks he rears.” (1 Woodb. & M. 53, 3 West.L.J. 151, 7 F.Cas. 197, No. 3662, 2 Robb.Pat.Cas. 303, Merw.Pat.Inv. 414). The statement that “discoveries are…property” goes back earlier. Section 1 of the French law of 1791 stated, “All new discoveries are the property of the author; to assure the inventor the property and temporary enjoyment of his discovery, there shall be delivered to him a patent for five, ten or fifteen years.” In Europe, French author A. Nion mentioned propriété intellectuelle in his Droits civils des auteurs, artistes et inventeurs, published in 1846. The concept’s origins can potentially be traced back further. Jewish law includes several considerations whose effects are similar to those of modern intellectual property laws, though the notion of intellectual creations as property does not seem to exist – notably the principle of Hasagat Ge’vul (unfair encroachment) was used to justify limited-term publisher (but not author) copyright in the 16th century. The Talmud contains the prohibitions against certain mental crimes (further elaborated in the Shulchan Aruch), notably Geneivat da’at (גניבת דעת, literally “mind theft”), which some have interpreted as prohibiting theft of ideas, though the doctrine is principally concerned with fraud and deception, not property.
1 lb pork loin – cut into chunks
1 head garlic
1/4 cup soy sauce
1 tsp black pepper(freshly ground)
1/2 cup white vinegar
1 tbsp vegetable oil
Place the pork in a medium-size pot together with the garlic, soy
sauce, pepper and vinegar and let stand for 2 hours. *(See note
below) Cook slowly in the same pot until the pork is tender (about 30
minutes). Transfer pieces of garlic to a seperate pan and fry in hot
oil until brown. Add the pork pieces to the garlic and the fry until
brown. Drain. Add the broth to the fried pork and garlic and simmer
for 10 minutes.
* Note (I usually brown the pork BEFORE I add it to the soy sauce
mixture in order to render more of the fat out.
Servings: 3 servings
Categories: Meat; Pork
The History of Recipes
It is possible to follow the history of written recipes back into antiquity, certainly as far back as the early Egyptians, and quite possibly further than that. In practice though, in the main part, these ancient cook books were just primitive hieroglyphic instructions for meal preparation.
In fact, the oldest recipe found, according to academics are some tablets in Sumerian describing the preparation of bread which is then used to make a drink, quite possibly a form of beer as it is recorded as having made anyone who drank it feel wonderful and blissful.
Progressing into The time of the roman empire 25BC a man called Apicius compiled a collection of documents describing recipes cooked by wealthy roman citizens. In his publication, Apicius tells us how the roman meals were separated into starters, main course and afters, something we still use today. Aspicius also informs us how the cooks of his times were skilled in the use of a good variety of spices, including many that are still in use today like thyme, fennel and parsley.
Later on in the 1400s, the Crusaders brought back many foods, spices and herbs from the East, including spices like parsley, basil and rosemary. The introduction of these new tastes was responsible for a torrent in manuscripts on cooking, most of which are kept safe in private libraries.
For the centuries that followed, the powerful families of Europe competed with each other to lay on the best banquets, and as a result the best chefs and their collection of recipes were much in demand. Notwithstanding that, it was during the nineteenth century that formal cookery and recipe books reached a high level of popularity. Mrs Isabella Beeton in the UK, and the equally famous Fannie Farmer in the US, spent years to collecting, testing, and recording recipes that were common in the better off homes of the day.
The introduction of the TV brought us cooking programs and the spin-off recipe books.
Which pretty much brings us to the present day and the invention of the internet, allowing everyone to access massive numbers of recipes such as those found on this recipe site.
Kare Kare Recipe. Learn how to make Kare Kare with this Filipino Recipe. Kare Kare is an easy to make Filipino recipe that contains mainly beef, peanut butter, eggplant and long green beans. Bagoong is typically served on the side with Kare Kare to add salty shrimp flavour.
Kare Kare Recipe Estimated cooking time:
Kare Kare Recipe Ingredients:
* 1/2 kilo beef (round or sirloin cut) cut into cubes (for a more traditional kare kare, use cleaned beef tripe instead of beef)
* 1/2 kilo oxtail, cut 2 inch long
* 1 cup of peanut butter
* 1/4 cup grounded toasted rice
* 1/2 cup cooked bagoong alamang (anchovies)
* 2 pieces onions, diced
* 2 heads of garlic, minced
* 4 tablespoons atsuete oil
* 4 pieces eggplant, sliced 1 inch thick
* 1 bundle Pechay (Bok choy) cut into 2 pieces
* 1 bundle of sitaw (string beans) cut to 2″ long
* 1 banana bud, cut similar to eggplant slices, blanch in boiling water
* 1/2 cup oil
* 8 cups of water
* Salt to taste
Kare Kare Recipe Cooking Instructions:
* In a stock pot, boil beef and oxtails in water for an hour or until cooked. Strain and keep the stock.
* In a big pan or wok, heat oil and atsuete oil.
* Sauté garlic, onions until golden brown, then add the stock, toasted rice, beef, oxtail and peanut butter. Bring to a boil and simmer for 15 minutes. Salt to taste.
* Add the eggplant, string beans, pechay and banana bud. Cook the vegetables for a few minutes – Do not overcook the vegetables.
* Serve with bagoong on the side and hot plain rice.